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Joined: 29/01/2005 12:02:35
Messages: 6096

Cement Industry Will Spend $3.5 Billion for Air Pollution Control in 2010

With China leading the way, the cement industry will invest more than $3.5 billion for air pollution control systems in 2010. Nearly 50 percent of this investment will be for fabric filters. These are the latest forecasts from the McIlvaine Company reports: World Fabric Filter and Element Markets, Scrubber/Adsorber/Biofilter World Markets, NOx Control World Markets and Electrostatic Precipitator World Markets.

By 2015 expenditures will rise to just under $5 billion annually. Part of this increase will be due to new hazardous air pollutant standards slated to be issued in the U.S. in June of this year. These standards are likely to result in over 100 scrubbers for HCl removal. An equal number of new baghouses will be needed to meet the toxic metal and particulate limits.

At present the number is uncertain but the rules could force most plants to install regenerative thermal oxidizers to meet the total hydrocarbon limits. Settlements of lawsuits are also resulting in the first selective catalytic reduction (SCR) units for NOx control. This approach is much more capital intensive than the selective, non-catalytic approach (SNCR) which involves only injection of urea or ammonia into the hot zones of the system.

SNCR is being used on a number of plants around the world. SCR has been applied only to a few plants.

Fabric filters have become the choice for new cement plants to control emissions from the kiln as well as the various transfer and grinding operations. With 50 percent of the world's production of cement and continuous expansion of infrastructure, China has become a very large market for fabric filters.

Europe continues to steadily reduce allowable emissions of acid gases and NOx. As a result, there are more HCl removal systems on cement plants in Europe than in any other continent. This is despite the relatively small cement production. Germany produces only 1.3 percent of the world's cement compared to 1.9 percent in Italy and 2.1 percent in Spain.

The location of the cement production will be shaped by the regulations. The Portland Cement Association predicts that without the new toxic standards, cement imports to the U.S. will be 18 percent of the total in 2020. With the regulations, the imports will rise to 33 percent.

Mercury control expenditures are likely to rise. It is estimated that Chinese mercury emissions from cement plants are 75 tons per year. Chinese coal-fired power plants emit close to 100 tons/yr of mercury. This contrasts to U.S. cement plants which emit approximately 15 tons and U.S. coal plants with emissions of 50 tons. Elemental mercury represents a significant portion of total cement plant mercury emissions. In the elemental state, mercury travels on an intercontinental basis making it a global problem.

A number of cement plants operate electrostatic precipitators for particulate removal. With the passage of more stringent emission limits, these plants are investing in upgrades. One such upgrade involves replacing the conventional transformer-rectifiers with switch mode power supplies. In addition to the upgrades, the supply of replacement rappers and other components is a significant business for the pollution control industry. The trend to replace electrostatic precipitators with baghouses is continuing with substantial activity in the Ukraine and other former Soviet countries as well as in Asia.

There is a big opportunity for innovative technology. The variation, in the level of pollutants from one plant to another, dictates that solutions be tailored to individual plant needs. One plant may need to remove 99 percent of the mercury due to the fact that the local limestone has unusually high mercury content. Importing limestone from some distance would not be economical. Therefore a new approach will be needed. One may be the two-stage scrubber system. The first stage is the HCl scrubber and the second stage is the SO2 scrubber. Incinerators in Europe are making commercial hydrochloric acid with this technology. At the same time, they are achieving very high mercury removal.

With the climate change initiatives there is interest in alternative fuels for cement plants. European cement producers are pursuing renewable biomass sources such as switchgrass. The fuel selection will impact the cost and performance of the air pollution control equipment.

For more information on:
World Fabric Filter and Element Markets, click on:

Scrubber/Adsorber/Biofilter World Markets, click on:


NOx Control World Markets, click on: http://www.mcilvainecompany.com/brochures/air.html#n035

Electrostatic Precipitator: World Market, click on:


Bob McIlvaine


847 784 0012 ext 112


Joined: 30/04/2011 01:49:18
Messages: 1

Cement industry is one of the major air polluting industries among the 17 identified by CPCB. The other are Aluminum, Cement, Chlor Alkali, Copper, Distillery, Dyes and dye intermediates, Fertilizers, Iron & steel, Oil Refineries, Petrochemicals, Pharmaceuticals, Pulp & Paper, Sugar, Tannery, Thermal Power Plants, Zinc and Pesticides.

The cement industry in its various processes emits Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM) and oxides of nitrogen besides carbondioxide, which is produced during calcinations process . The emission of carbondioxide depends on the type of production processes, their efficiency, fuel used etc. Particulate matter is the main pollutant emitted from cement industries. India produces different varieties of cement like Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC), Portland Pozzolana Cement (PPC), Portland Blast Furnace Slag Cement (PBFS), Oil Well Cement, Rapid Hardening Portland Cement, Sulphate Resisting Portland Cement, White Cement etc.

Cement manufacturing is an energy intensive process. Consuming energy from fossil fuels such as oil and coal creates carbon dioxide, the most important Greenhouse Gas causing climate change. In industrial sector, cement industry is the second largest emitter of carbondioxide and accounts for 5 per cent of global manmade carbondioxide emissions, of which 60 per cent is from the chemical process and 40 per cent from burning fuel.

Emission of carbon dioxide, which causes global warming, from Indian cement companies is significantly lower than European and American cement companies.

The steps taken to control pollution from the cement industry include notification of emission standards for cement industry, the adoption of Corporate Responsibility for Environment Protection (CREP) for 17 categories of industries including cement and regular monitoring for compliance of environmental standards.

Cement is a binder, a substance which sets and hardens independently and can bind other materials. Cements used in construction are characterized as hydraulic or non-hydraulic.

The cement industry holds immense promise in terms of utilizing wastes from other industries, fly ash (from the power sector), blast furnace slag (from the iron and steel industry) and phosphor-gypsum (from fertilizer plant) are used to manufacturer blended cement, without sacrificing the quality of cement. Today, about 12 per cent of total fly ash generated in India is used by the cement industry. Utilization of fly ash in cement sector is therefore very low.

As far as Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) projects in cement sector are concerned, the National CDM Authority has accorded approval to about 40 cement projects. 20 of these have since been registered. These 20 registered projects will help save 17.60 MT of carbondioxide till the year 2012.

Dust is another major pollutant emitted in the process of production of cement. Considering the contribution of air pollution by the cement industry, the Central Pollution Control Board in close consultation with the State Boards and the Association of cement industry had evolved emission standards for cement plants of different capacities.

The Emission Standards for Existing Cement Industry with plant capacity of 200 tonnes per day and less in all sections for protected area is 250 mg/Nm3 and in other area 400 mg/Nm3. Similarly the standard for plant capacity of greater than 200 tonnes per day in all sections for protected area is 150 mg/Nm3 and in other area 250 mg/Nm3

For New Cement Kilns including grinding units the particulate matter emission standards is 50 mg/Nm3 .

The main sources of fugitive emission in cement industry are open air handling and storage of raw materials and clinker; transfer; points; leaking joints; loading and unloading operation and vehicular movement on unpaved roads.

The methods employed for fugitive dust control in cement industry include exhaust ventilation system and water spray system. There are six types of Greenhouse Gases. They mainly include carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxides, hydroflurocarbons, perflurocarbons and sulphur hexafluoride.

In the process of calcinations, carbon dioxide emission in cement manufacturing originate from combustion of fossil fuels and from calcining the limestone in the raw mix. Calcium carbonate in limestone when calcined gets converted into lime and carbon dioxide.

About 60 percent of emission caused by making cement are from this chemical process alone. As a rough estimate, total carbon dioxide emissions range from 0.85 – 1.15 tonne of cement produce, assuming clinker to cement ratio as 0.95. The approximate contributions of each of the three main sources of carbon dioxide emissions are Calcinations - 50-55 percent ; Fuel combustion - 40-50 per cent and Electricity - 0-10% (assuming that electricity is generated from fossil fuels).

Various types of Air Pollution Control Devices (APCDs) in the form of dust collectors are used in cement plants to control the emission of dust to the atmosphere. The types of pollution control equipment used in cement industry to control particulate emission are cyclone and multicyclones, fabric filters/ bag filters, electronic precipitators and gravel bed filters.

Besides many other steps, the clean technologies adopted in cement industries. And the manufacture of clinker by Dry Process technology, manufacture of blended cements such as Portland Pozzolona Cement (PPC), Portland Blast Furnace Slag Cement (PBFS) and use of high calorific wastes as alternate fuels/source of energy.

Air Pollution Control System
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